Nonferrous metallurgy is also the oldest industry. Nonferrous metallurgy includes production and enrichment of raw materials, and also smelting of non-ferrous metals. It makes 70 various metals, but 96% of weight are the share of aluminum, copper, zinc and lead. Though the majority of resources is concentrated in developing countries, but the most part of extraction and production of non-ferrous metals is located in industrialized countries.
One countries, for example Zaire and South Africa, have essential reserves of minerals. Other states as, for example Honduras and Guatemala, on the geographical position have favorable conditions for cultivation of tropical fruit. The third, Switzerland and Japan, concentrated great technical capabilities and the qualified labor. In each of the called cases special conditions give to the state of advantage by production of some goods and services.
New growth of global integration was helped by the new industrial revolution developed on the Globe in the second half of the XX century. It generated such branches as automotive industry, oil production and oil processing, exact mechanical engineering which became a driving force of new system of the international division of labor. At the end of the XX century crude oil and oil products, cars and exact electronics - three major commodity groups in world trade of which about a half of world export is the share.
Specializing on production of those products for which they have absolute advantages, exchanging excess production with each other, Costa Rica and the USA will receive more than both bananas, and computers, than they would have if tried to make both independently.
Large reserves of copper are concentrated in Chile, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Zaire, Peru (from the developed countries - in the USA, the CIS, Kanad. Smelting of draft copper - in the USA, Chile, Japan, Zambia, Zaire, Canada. Producers of the refined copper are the USA, the CIS, Japan, Chile, Canada, Belgium.
That circumstance is even more important that specialization of various countries in release of various goods and an exchange between them give the chance to all countries, big and small, to receive more various goods and services, than if they tried to make everything independently. It led to creation of system of the international division of labor, global on the scale of all Globe. Since the middle of the XIX century, the history of world economy is characterized by fight against protectionism for freedom of international trade.