Japanese allow in organizational life uncertainty, an ambiguity, imperfection, as well as many other, real-life. Besides, Japanese feel like much more interdependent. Therefore they are ready to make the further efforts directed on improvement of people and to ability education effectively to work with each other.
) Mugs of quality is not the mechanical car, but continuous process. It has two distinctive, but supplementing each other lines. On the one hand, it is educational and informative process. On the other hand, it is process which promotes participation of workers in the actions affecting their daily work. It provides a basis for mutual cooperation of management and workers.
The system of planning in branches assumes that each independent department, and then and branch develops the plan. On their basis the general plan of all company is prepared. In general the method of planning assumes the following stages:
It should be noted that the importance, resources and the power of management are incomparable to resources of labor unions. But leaders of the union and management divide two main assumptions: first, prosperity of firm creates conditions for the solution of other tasks, and, secondly, hatred to each other does well to nobody.
One of distinctive features of Japanese management is management of a manpower. Japanese corporations operate the employees so that the last worked most effectively. For achievement of this purpose Japanese corporations use the American technology of personnel administration, including effective systems of a salary, the analysis of the organization of work and workplaces, certifications of employees and others. But there is also a big difference between the American and Japanese management. Japanese corporations use devotion of the employees to the companies more. Otozhestvleniye of employees with corporation creates strong morals and conducts to high efficiency. The Japanese control system seeks to strengthen this otozhestvleniye, bringing it to sacrifice to interests of firm.
In such circumstances management by the personnel is especially important. Japanese managers believe that people are a greatest property. At selection of applicants for management of the highest level ability to direct people is most of all appreciated.
It is necessary to understand accurately that the Japanese method assumes complete unanimity. It not the solution of the majority. Japanese have disgust for tyranny of the majority. If complete unanimity is not present, the decision is not made. If the opinion of small minority is opposed to the decision, him convince to respect views of the others. This compromise position will be rewarded later.
Japanese society is divided into separate institutes not horizontally, and vertically. The enterprise is one of such institutes. Managers and workers can have disagreements, but these are purely internal affairs of firm. Both and others watch that at competitor companies as on the sworn enemies. Each firm to seek to be the first in the sphere. The prestige means more, than profit.
As a result the main lines of a Japanese control system are defined by a number of the concepts which are absent in the American model. The most important of them are the system of lifelong hiring and process of collective decision-making.
Continuous presence of the management on production. That will quickly cope with difficulties and for assistance to the solution of problems in process of their emergence Japanese often place the operating personnel directly in production rooms. In process of permission of each problem small innovations that leads to accumulation of additional innovations are brought. In Japan for assistance to additional innovations the system of innovative offers and a mug of quality is widely used.
The representations described above were important for preparation of changes in Japanese strategy of management and style of the management, and also for restructuring of the separate enterprises and economic system in general. Recognition of the social responsibility lying on managing directors became a core of new concepts.