Labor input of production of milk remains very high and rates of its decrease still very low. High expenses of work counting on one cow because of the low level of mechanization which has considerable impact on labor productivity level and economic efficiency of milk in general are the main reason.
Decrease in production of dairy products is caused first of all by disinterest of producers in development of branch in the conditions of disparity of the prices, growth of non-payments, deterioration of security with sterns and other material resources, decrease in level selektsionno of breeding work.
In the long term the main directions of development of branches of animal husbandry have to become - a rational combination of large, average and small-scale production, use of intensive and traditional factors of its development on the basis of the complex decision within target programs of problems of increase in production of forages, improvement of selection and breeding work, increase of interest of producers in the end results.
The wrong, physiologically unreasonable feeding of cows during the zimnestoylovy period on diets which structure does not correspond to physiological features of digestion at ruminant herbivores is the main leading reason for the above trouble in dairy cattle breeding. It is also caused silage and solosno-kontsentratny by feeding types when in diets the contents sour (a silo and concentrates) - unnatural for ruminant forages prevails, and contains hay - the most natural forage necessary for animals very little.
By practice of world and domestic cattle breeding it is proved that profitability of a modern dairy farming is directly connected with a yield of milk of cows. Thereof cattle breeders of the countries with the developed dairy cattle breeding different zootechniques achieve growth of their efficiency. Thus the quantity of dairy cows, as a rule is reduced, at increase in output of milk.
The account and control of the spent forages is poorly put. Practically not actually fed volume of forages, and the prepared forages, including losses at storage, etc. is written off for dairy herd that considerably overestimates the actual consumption level. At the low level and quality of feeding - on efficiency increase. The balanced feeding, at the high specific weight of concentrates in a diet (to 30%) provides increase of efficiency of cows and an economic return.
In general, factors of increase of efficiency of cows have essential impact not only on a yield of milk, but also on other indicators of economic efficiency of production of milk, also on - labor productivity, costs of forages of 1 centner of milk, cost of production of 1 centner of milk, capital productivity, payback of forages.
There are also essential seasonal distinctions of an average monthly yield of milk of cows and production efficiency of milk. So, a yield of milk during the pasturable period on average in a month above a yield of milk in the stall. Thus noticeable decrease in prime cost of 1 centner of milk, due to bigger use of cheap forages, essential increase in labor productivity and payback of a forage is noted by production.